April 20, 2017

Daniel Smith Harris: A Notable "Catch"

Sarah Coates Harris, whom we covered last time, had a life-changing experience when she inadvertently met the widower Captain Daniel Smith Harris while traveling by Mississippi river boat on a lecture tour.

Daniel Smith Harris (1808-1893).  Photograph courtesy of
Judy Kerr, Ashland, Oregon.
Sarah and Daniel were married on August 25, 1851, probably in Galena, Illinois, where Daniel lived with his five children by a prior wife.  Although Sarah was a birth-right Quaker, and it was said that "[...] her whole life would prove a testimony to Quaker beliefs [...]", there is no indication that Daniel was a Quaker or that they married according to Quaker tradition.  (Oestreich, Winter 1999, 2.)  In fact, Quaker records indicate that prior to Sarah leaving Chester County, Pennsylvania, to join her sister Esther in Ohio, Sarah was disowned by the Fallowfield Monthly Meeting for "absenting herself from religious communion with Friends."
Sarah's husband, Daniel Smith Harris, was one of thirteen children born to James and Abigail Bathrick Harris at Kortright Station, Delaware County, New York. He was born on July 24, 1808,the sixth of their children and the first son.  Eight years later, the Harris family moved to Cincinnati, Ohio, where James eventually found it difficult to support his family.  In 1823, he decided to join the Moses Meeker colony to the Fever River lead mines near Galena, Illinois, and took his fifteen-year-old son Daniel with him.
Daniel rejoiced in the adventure of traveling by river on the Colonel Bomford  keelboat along the Ohio River and then the Mississippi.  Once on the Mississippi, Daniel took note of the swifter steamboat Virginia which quickly overtook the keelboat as it plied its way ahead.  This sight began his interest in steamboats and a career on the Mississippi River that would make him famous.
A year after beginning work at the lead mines, three of Daniel's younger brothers joined him and his father on a farm James had purchased for the family.  They industriously worked to produce vegetables and other crops that were in great demand by the local mining community, making a prosperous living from that alone.  Daniel and his brother, Scribe, continued, however, to work the mines and one Sunday they happened upon an old deserted mine shaft that contained one of the richest leads ever found in the area.  They named the mine West Diggings and ultimately removed 4,000,000 pounds of mineral that made and kept them wealthy their entire lives.
Lead smelter at the Galena mines.  Source of image: Mining History Association.  Visit
mining photos and an article titled "History of the Upper Mississippi Valley Zinc-Lead Mining District."
Daniel's success and aggressive ambition attracted the attention of Captain David G. Bates, a steamboat captain who transported lead from the Galena area on the upper Mississippi to St. Louis, Missouri.  He offered Daniel a position in the pilot house as cub-pilot of the steamboat Galena in 1829 and a year later took on Daniel's brother Scribe as an assistant engineer.  This fortuitous happenstance laid the groundwork for Daniel's and Scribe's later steamboat design and building activities and Daniel's career as a steamboat Captain.
By the time Daniel met and married Sarah Coates in 1851, he had amassed sufficient wealth to indulge his passion for steamboat design and construction and also, in 1855,  provide a large home in Galena, called The Steamboat House, for their growing family.
The Steamboat House.  Source of image: web site for The Steamboat House B&B at

While Sarah pursued her interests in homeopathic medicine, anatomy, hygiene, physiology and women's rights, as well as raising a growing family and entertaining on behalf of social causes and for their own pleasure, Daniel built and piloted a variety of steamboats on the Mississippi, always striving to produce the fastest and most efficient.  He seldom piloted a single steamboat for more than a year or two, always building or purchasing new ones to test their speed and competitive edge on the river.  His competitive tendencies were renowned and his competition with the Minnesota Packet Company, which continued for years, almost ruined them both.  This finally resulted in Daniel being asked to join the Packet Company. This did not, however, reduce his competitive drive to pilot the fastest steamboat on the river.
The first fast boat Daniel built was called the War Eagle.  Completed in 1845 before he met Sarah, it remained the fastest steamboat on the upper Mississippi for five years, setting a record from Galena to St. Louis.  Ten years later, in 1855, Daniel brought out the Grey Eagle which he had built in Cincinnati with his own money at a cost of $60,000.  (This amount converts to $1,568,365.96 in 2016 dollars.)  It was aboard the Grey Eagle that Daniel's most notable exploit took place.
When the trans-Atlantic telegraph cable was installed in 1858, newspapers and the populace eagerly anticipated the first cable transmission from England.  This came in the form of a telegraph message from Queen Victoria that reached Dubuque, Iowa, on August 16th.  There were no telegraph  lines from the Atlantic seaboard to St. Paul and the Mississippi River towns in Minnesota at the time, making these communities reliant on the steamboat to bring them the news.  Daniel Smith Harris resolved to be the first to deliver this news to St. Paul as Captain of the Grey Eagle.
1858 map of the route of the trans-Atlantic cable from England to the United States.
Source of image:  Wikimedia Commons.

Harris set out from Dunlith at 8:30 a.m. on August 17th carrying copies of Dubuque and Galena newspapers that contained the message from Queen Victoria.  The steamboat Itasca, piloted by Captain David Whitten, had left nine hours earlier for the same purpose.  With extra fuel aboard and despite making some deliveries along the way, the Grey Eagle traveled one hundred and fifty miles by 9:30 p.m., cutting Whitten's lead by almost two-thirds.  Delivering papers to the towns along the way by slowing the Grey Eagle enough to throw them ashore, Daniel managed to catch up with the Itasca about one mile from St. Paul.  Captain Whitten, by this time, perceived what Daniel was trying to do and the two steamboats essentially "raced" toward St. Paul with the Grey Eagle soon pulling alongside the Itasca.  Whitten's boat, however, had the inside track and pulled into the wharf first.  While the crew of the Itasca was occupied with tying up and getting ready to unload the papers they carried, the Grey Eagle pulled alongside with a deck hand on a swinging stage carrying a number of newspapers.  These he flung to one of Daniel's agents on the dock.  The news reached St. Paul before papers from the Itasca could be delivered ashore.  With the speed of the Grey Eagle and fast thinking , Daniel had won what became known as "The Race of the Grey Eagle."

The Grey Eagle had given Captain Daniel Smith Harris the "victory" of his lifetime but it would soon be his undoing.  On May 9, 1861, Daniel was piloting the Grey Eagle when it crashed into a pier of the Rock Island Bridge and sank in twenty feet of water.  Some of the people aboard drowned and several were injured.  This was Daniel's only accident in his thirty-two year career on the river but the incident and the loss of the Grey Eagle devastated him, resulting in his retirement from river activity.

Old newspaper clipping showing the Grey Eagle.  Source of image: Iowa History Project.

Daniel Smith Harris returned to his mining business and related activities after he left the river.  He and Sarah raised Daniel's children by his first wife plus had seven more of their own, two of whom died in infancy.  Theirs was a busy household that often hosted people of note such as Ulysses S. Grant and Susan B. Anthony.  Sarah passed away in 1886, leaving Daniel to live on without her until his death in 1893.  He is buried with Sarah in Galena, Illinois, at the Greenwood Cemetery.


Ancestry.com census and Quaker Meeting records.

Merrick, George Byron.  Old Times on the Upper Mississippi, The Recollections of a Steamboat Pilot from 1854 to 1863.  Cleveland:  The Arthur H. Clark Col, 1909.

Oestreich, Kathryn.  "Sarah Coates Harris: A Woman of History" in Miner's Journal Published by the Galena/Jo Daviess County Historical Society, Winter and Spring, 1999.

Petersen, William J.  Steamboating on the Upper Mississippi.  New York: Dover Publications, 1968.

(c) Lynda Salter Chenoweth and Mary Holton Robare, 2017.

March 25, 2017

Sarah Coates Harris

This post is the first of several that will reveal the lives of people whose names appear on the Esther Coates Wileman Quilt introduced to you last time.  (The long absences between these posts is indicative of the research we are conducting to fully understand the quilt and the community it represents.  Please bear with us!)

Sarah Coates Harris was Esther's youngest sister, born in Caln Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania, on March 7, 1824.  Her birth was duly recorded by the Bradford Monthly Meeting and she was the last of eight children born to Quakers Samuel and Margaret Cherrington Coates between the years of 1809 and 1824.

Sarah Coates Harris (1824-1886).  Photograph courtesy of Judy
Kerr, a direct descendant of the family.
Sarah grew up in a large family home near Caln Station on the Pennsylvania Railroad, surrounded by rolling farm land and forests.  Her fondness of her home is reflected in a watercolor of the house and land she painted in 1841 when she was seventeen years old.
Coates house and land painted by Sarah Coates at age seventeen.  Source of image:
A Genealogy of Moses and Susanna Coates who Settled in Pennsylvania in 1717 by
Truman Coates, 1906.
Three years later, in November 1844, Sarah's sister Esther married Quaker Abram G. Wileman and moved to Marlboro Township, Stark County, Ohio.  During the time leading up to this marriage, Sarah and Coates family members and friends made the quilt that Esther took with her to Ohio.  Sarah Coates was one of the many family members named on the quilt.
Badly faded inscription with the name Sarah Coates on the Esther Coates Wileman Quilt
Photograph by Lynda Salter Chenoweth.
Sarah, herself, moved to Ohio either with Esther or about the same time that Esther's marriage took her there.  According to an article about Sarah in the Miners' Journal published by the Galena/Jo Daviess County Historical Society in Illinois, she spent her early twenties in Ohio where she cultivated her interest in physiology, by enrolling in a lecture series on the topic at the Marlboro Ladies Academy during 1849-1850, natural history, through extensive reading, and the women's movement and its belief in the equality of women.
Sarah appeared with in-law Elizabeth Wileman and other representatives from Marlboro at the Salem, Ohio 1850 Women's Rights Convention after calls to attend were published over their names in the Anti-Slavery Bugle and the Salem Homestead Journal during March and April, 1850.  The call read, in part: "The undersigned earnestly call on the Women of Ohio to meet them in Convention on Friday, the 19th day of April next, at 10 o'clock, A.M., in the town of Salem, to concert measures to secure to all persons the recognition of Equal Rights, and the extension of the privileges of Government without distinction of sex or color."  (Later in life, Sarah presided over a Woman's  Suffrage Convention in her home in Galena, Illinois, that featured Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton.)
Mississippi River steamboats.  Source of image: Wikimedia Commons.
Sarah began giving public lectures about physiology, anatomy, and hygiene as part of her interests in these subjects.  It was on a river steamboat traveling between St. Louis and St. Paul on one of her lecture tours that she met the wealthy widower Captain Daniel Smith Harris.  (Much more will be written about Daniel Smith Harris next time.)  They married in 1851 and she moved to Galena, Illinois, to become the mother of his five young children by his prior wife.  There, they built, in 1855, an elegant home they named The Steamboat House and produced seven children of their own, two of whom died in infancy.
The Steamboat House in Galena, Illinois.  Former residence of Daniel and Sarah Coates
Harris, currently an historic B&B.  Source of image:  Galena Jo Daviess County web site.
Sarah and Daniel raised their ten surviving children in The Steamboat House which has three floors, 7,000 square feet, nine bedrooms, seven bathrooms, and seven fireplaces. Sarah's interest in botany produced fifty varieties of roses nurtured in the conservatory of the house, and beneath it runs a tunnel used to hide fugitives on the Underground Railroad until they could be moved north to Canada.  Their home also served as a place for entertaining and receptions were given there for General Ulysses S. Grant, Susan B. Anthony, and British physician Elizabeth Blackwell, the first woman to be given a medical degree in the United States.
Elizabeth Blackwell (181-1910).  Source of image:  Wikimedia Commons.
According to a guest who visited the Harris home, Sarah was "[...] a noble woman, tall, fine-looking who moves about among her household gods like a queen.  Although she has a large family of black-eyed rosy-cheeked children, pictures, statuary, a cabinet of rare minerals, a conservatory of beautiful plants, and a husband who thinks her little lower than the angels, she still demands the right to vote, and occasionally indulges in the luxury of public speaking.  She is the moving spirit in every step of progress in Galena."  (Oestreich, Winter 1999, 6.)
Hahnemann Medical  College, Chicago.  Source of image:  Wikimedia Commons.
Sarah had attended many medical lectures and had practiced homeopathic medicine for five years before entering Hahnemann Medical College in Chicago in 1878, graduating with a M.D. the following year.  Her past training and experience were accepted as the equivalent of a year of lectures at the medical school, enabling her to graduate in just one year.  She set up a medical office contingent with her home only to find that the State Board of Health would not give her a certificate to practice medicine in Illinois without passing a Board of Health examination.  Such an examination was required of any medical school graduates who had not attended two full years of lectures at their medical school.
Newspapers and citizens reacted in Sarah's favor and she, too, wrote in the public media about the circumstances and unfairness she was being subjected to. An article in The Daily newspaper on July 23, 1879 had this to say about Sarah's public rebuttal to the State Board of Health:  "Mrs. Sarah Coates Harris, of Galena, Ill., who has been debarred from medical practices under her Hahnemann College diploma by the State Board of Health, defends herself in a very lively article, which, whatever her medical attainments may be, show that she is amply qualified to hold her own in a wordy argument.  In Fact, from the way she quotes law and hurls English, the Inter Ocean [a Chicago newspaper being quoted] fancies  that she has mistaken her calling, and that her place is at the bar or on the lecture forum."  It turns out that Sarah was never disbarred, as stated above, but instead subjected herself to the State Board of Health examination and passed it with the highest grade ever granted by that organization.  She opened her medical office and practiced medicine in Galena for the rest of her life.
Sarah passed away on February 22, 1886 at The Steamboat House.  She was sixty-one years, eleven months, and ten days old at the time. Her cause of death was cancer.  Sarah's obituary reported that she had left behind her husband, Daniel, four married daughters, and a seventeen-year-old son.  She was buried at Greenwood  Cemetery, Galena, Illinois.
The tombstone of Sarah Coates and Daniel Harris, Greenwood Cemetery, Galena,
Illinois.  Source of image:  www.findagrave.com.
Our heart-felt thanks to Judy Kerr for providing archival sources for much of this post.
Ancestry.com Quaker Meeting Records.
Audretsch, Robert W. (ed.).  The Salem, Ohio 1850 Women's Rights Convention Proceedings.  Salem, OH: Salem Area Bicentennial Committee & Salem Public Library, 1965.
Coates, Truman.  A Genealogy of Moses and Susanna Coates who Settled in Pennsylvania in 1717. Compiled by Truman Coates, M.D., 1906.
Nineteenth-century newspaper articles provided by Judy Kerr from her family archives.
Oestreich, Kathyrn.  "Sarah Coates Harris: A Woman of History" in Miners' Journal published by the Galena/Jo Daviess County Historical Society, Winter and Spring, 1999.
The Steamboat House Bed and Breakfast, Galena, IL" at http://www.thesteamboathouse.com/history.html.
(c) Lynda Salter Chenoweth and Mary Holton Robare, 2017.


February 24, 2017

A Serendipitous Find

We spend a lot of our time looking for Quaker quilts that we can research and write about.  Several months ago, one such quilt "fell into our laps" when one of our blog viewers left a message on a post about Quaker causes, woman's rights, and suffrage.  Our post lamented that there seemed to be few suffragette quilts, partially because quilt making was considered a domestic activity rather than one that represented the growing movement for woman's rights and the vote.  The note posted by Judy Kerr said in reference to the quilt we described: "I have one in my closet."  This was followed by her phone number.

Lynda called her immediately and found that Judy lived in Ashland, Oregon.  She is a direct descendant of the Coates family of Pennsylvania - a noted Quaker family based in and near Philadelphia whose male members were merchants, in the shipping business, and farmers.  The "quilt in her closet" displays fifty-three names of family members and friends, and forty-five inscriptions, one of which is illegible.

The Esther Coates Quilt.  Photograph courtesy of Judy Kerr.

The quilt measures 114 X 116 1/2 inches and is comprised of eighty-one alternating pieced and single fabric blocks that measure approximately 12 1/2 inches square.  The pattern of the pieced blocks has various names cited in Barbara Brackman's Encyclopedia of Pieced Quilt Patterns including Grandmother's Pride, Nine Patch Checkerboard, Old Mail, The Queen's Favorite, and Checkerboard.  (Brackman, 303.)  The checkerboard blocks are comprised of small triangles (half squares cut on the diagonal) and 2 3/4 inch whole squares.  The names and inscriptions are found on the center square of the checkerboard blocks.

Block bearing an inscription of part of a poem titled "Remember Me" by Quaker
poetess Elizabeth Margaret Chandler (1807-1834) along with the name
Margaret Coates.  Photograph courtesy of Judy Kerr.
The quilt was made by family and friends for Esther Coates, daughter of Samuel and Margaret Cherrington Coates of Chester County, Pennsylvania, and active members of the Bradford Monthly Meeting.  The quilt was a gift for Esther in celebration of her marriage, in 1844, to Abram G. Wileman of Stark County, Ohio.
During conversations about this quilt with Judy, Lynda expressed interest in seeing it in-person and transcribing the names and inscriptions displayed on it.  It turned out that Judy had a friend who was coming to California to visit friends in a town close to where Lynda lives.  Judy arranged for her friend to bring the quilt with her and Lynda was able to pick it up and bring it home for study.  With Judy's permission, Lynda has had the quilt in her possession for close to three months during which she has been able to decipher all but one of the names on the quilt as well as most of the inscriptions.
This work has revealed the quilt to be an important social and historic record.
There is a great deal to be written about Esther, her family members, her friends in Chester and Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, and the inscriptions recorded on her quilt.  This will be forthcoming in articles, future blog posts, and perhaps eventually a book.  For now we simply want you to know about this historic treasure that represents a time and community activities that helped shape the history of this country.
Brackman, Barbara.  Encyclopedia of Pieced Quilt Patterns.  Paducah, KY: American Quilters Society, 1984.
(c) Lynda Salter Chenoweth and Mary Holton Robare, 2017

January 20, 2017

Will the Real Mary Ann Dewees Please Stand Up?

In one of the posts about Joy Swartz's red and white "circle" quilt, we mentioned the difficulty of precisely identifying a person named on a quilt when there are several people found to have the same name who lived in the same geographical region during a time period in which the quilt could have been made. A prior post about an inscriber named Jane Biddle posed this problem and we ended up writing about three of the Jane Biddles who may have been the one referred to on the quilt.  Well, this situation has arisen again.

The Joy Schwartz red and white "circle" quilt.  Photograph courtesy of
Barbara Brackman.
One of the inscriptions on Joy's quilt is "Mary A. Dewees, Philadelphia Pa."  We've found four most likely, possible candidates for this Mary A. Dewees.
Block inscribed with the name "Mary A. Dewees" and the city of "Philadelphia, Pa."
Photograph by Lynda Salter Chenoweth.
The first candidate was born on January 11, 1812 in Chester County, Pennsylvania, to William and Deborah Hoopes Dewees.  The birth of this Mary Dewees was recorded by the Bradford Monthly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends in Chester County.  No records of her whereabouts could be found until she married a man named Robert Hall on November 23, 1848 at the Chesterfield Monthly Meeting in Athens, Ohio.  She later married a man named Robert Miller in Columbiana County, Ohio, on October 25, 1867.  She was fifty-five years old at the time.  Quaker records show that she attended the Sandy Springs Monthly Meeting in Hanover Township, Columbiana County, Ohio, and the census of 1880 refers to her as Mary H. Miller living with her husband Robert in Salem, Ohio. Mary died at age eighty-five on August 13, 1897 in Berks County, Pennsylvania according to a record of the Exeter Monthly Meeting.  So far as could be determined, Mary never lived in Philadelphia, the city name inscribed on her block. 
The only two dates on Joy's quilt are 1848 and 1867.  Mary was living in Ohio in 1848, the year she married Robert Hall, and was still in Ohio in 1867 when she married Robert Miller.  We don't know when all the blocks of Joy's quilt were made because it seems to have been added to generationally.  It appears that this Mary A. Dewees lived most of her life in Ohio after leaving Pennsylvania (date unknown). This does not exclude her from having inscribed the block that bears her name sometime before she moved to Ohio and married in 1848.  Without evidence that she had once lived in Philadelphia, however, the case for her having inscribed the block is greatly weakened.
A second candidate for the "real" Mary A. Dewees was born December 11, 1818 in Philadelphia to Dr. William Potts Dewees and his wife Mary Lorain Dewees.  This Mary's father was a prominent physician on the faculty of the University of Pennsylvania, holding the position of Professor of Obstetrics and Chair of Obstetrics from 1834 to 1841.
Entrance to one of the quads at the University of Pennsylvania.  Source of image:
Wikimedia Commons.
Dr. William Potts Dewees circa 1833 by artist John Neagle (1799-1865).   This portrait hangs in
the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine.  Source of image: Wikimedia Commons.
Dr. Dewees published three important books during the 1820s, each of which went to ten editions.  These were System of Midwifery (1824), Treatise on the Physical and Medical Treatment of Children (1825), and Treatise on the Diseases of Females (1826).  He is described in American Medical Biographies as a "[. . .] Philadelphian obstetrician [that] was so famous that no parturient woman of the time considered herself safe in other hands."  Dr. Dewees., born in 1768, passed away in 1841.
Dr. Dewees and his wife, Mary, had nine children between 1803 and 1823, their daughter Mary Ann Dewees being the next to the last.  She became the second wife of Charles William Ogden from New York City in 1843 and had five children by him.  Their only son, Dewees Ogden, fought in the Civil War and died in July of 1863 from wounds inflicted at Gettysburg.
It appears that Mary Ann and Charles lived in New York City some or all of the time after they were married.  Charles died in Manhattan in 1859.  Mary died in Brooklyn on August 29, 1861 and is buried at Green Wood Cemetery in Brooklyn.
Hezekiah Pierrepont Memorial in Green Wood Cemetery, Brooklyn.
Source of image: Wikimedia Commons.
If Mary Ann Dewees Ogden is the Mary whose name appears on Joy's quilt, her block would have been inscribed prior to her marriage in 1842 while she was still unmarried and living in Philadelphia.  It is possible that this Mary is the "real" Mary but, not yet knowing what the people named on the quilt had in common, it is not possible to say for sure.  Most of the people on the quilt seem to be German Baptists and Lutherans.  Mary was Roman Catholic so religion is unlikely to be the common thread.  Also, this Mary was from a wealthy, prominent Philadelphia family while the others identified so far were from middle class families and most lived outside of Philadelphia.
This brings us to the third and fourth candidates for Mary A. Dewees.  The third was the daughter of John and Mary Boyer Dewees, born in Philadelphia in 1822.  In 1842, this Mary's brother, Jacob Dilworth Dewees, married another Mary Dewees (parents unknown) born in Pennsylvania in 1813. 
Census records indicate that Jacob was a farmer and that the couple lived in Philadelphia.  They had three children: Sarah H. in 1847; Franklin in 1850; and, Mary Annie in 1853.  Both Jacob and Mary lived into old age and were listed in the 1900 U.S. Census as being eighty-six and eighty-seven respectively.  Both are buried at Cedar Hill Cemetery in Philadelphia.
The Cedar Hill Cemetery, Philadelphia.  Source of image:
The reason that Jacob's wife Mary might be the "Mary A. Dewees" inscribed on Joy's quilt is her relationship to Jacob's sister.  However, Jacob's sister (her sister-in-law) is an even stronger  candidate because she points to other relationships between people named on the quilt.
One ancestry.com record indicates that Jacob's sister, Mary A. Dewees, married a man named Henry Day.  (No record of this marriage or its date has yet been found.)  There are two members of the Day family named on the quilt: Margaret Day and Lititia Day.  Both of these women are the daughters of Samuel W. Day and his wife Rachel Haas.  They lived in Norristown, Pennsylvania, about six miles from Philadelphia.  In addition, the central block of Joy's quilt is inscribed with a drawing and a verse dedicated to Eliza Faringer.  This block is inscribed by Augusta Haas.
Finding potential familial connections on the quilt between Mary A. Dewees Day, the daughters of Samuel W. Day, Rachel Haas Day, and Augusta Haas makes the Mary A. Dewees who married Henry Day a strong candidate to be the "real" Mary A. Dewees.  More research into these families and their possible connections is needed to come to a conclusion, one way or the other, but it is an important start and illustrates the amount of family research needed and the process of elimination required to identify people whose names are inscribed on nineteenth century quilts.
Selected Sources:
ancestry.com census, Public Member Tree, Quaker Meeting, North American Family Histories, and other ancestry data bases.
Busey, John W. and Travis W. Busey.  Confederate Casualties at Gettysburg, A Comprehensive Record, 4 Vols.  Jefferson, NC: Mac Farland & Co., 2017.
Kelly, Howard A. and Walter L. Burrage, eds.  "Dewees, William Potts" in American Medical Biographies. Baltimore: The Norman, Remington Company, 1920.
The Dewees Family, Genealogical Data, Biographical Facts and Historical Information Collected by Mrs. Philip E. LaMunyan.  E. Roberts, ed.  Norristown, PA: William M Roberts, 1905.
(c) Lynda Salter Chenoweth and Mary Holton Robare, 2017.