December 31, 2016

"Boots on the Ground" Reprised

We have recently been asked what some of the most important factors are in revealing and telling the stories that are represented by the names and inscriptions on inscribed quilts.  Much of the work is done on the computer using genealogical web sites, family histories, public record data, and information provided by others who have researched and written about the families in question.  However, the most useful and informative way to discover the lives of people whose names are inscribed on quilts is by walking the ground they walked, visiting the homes they lived in (if they still exist), seeing the communities in which they lived and died - all of these activities bring into better focus their stories. 

As researchers, one on the west coast and the other in Virginia, we are usually far away from the towns and communities represented by the people named on Quaker quilts.  This is especially true in Lynda's case who found the concept of "boots on the ground" particularly useful in researching the people and places named on Philena Cooper Hambleton's quilt.

What follows is one of our posts from 2012 that describes the benefits of finding others who are willing to help you discover the intimacy of places you are unable to visit and to shed light on the lives you are researching.

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"When asked what I think are the most valuable research tools I've come across, I always answer Tina Frantz and Pat Rowell.  These two remarkable women contributed more to my research into Philena Cooper Hambleton's family and life than any other sources available to me.  I highly recommend to any of you who are trying to research a signature quilt, whether Quaker or not, to seek the help of willing "boots on the ground" - people who live in the geographical areas of your quilt's inscribers.  They can do leg work you cannot do from your home, and discover information you will never find in books or on the Internet.

When you find someone willing to assist you, be aware that research usually involves costs.  Always ask about charges or fees before formally requesting research work of others.  It is a fair expectation that you will have to pay someone for time spent searching files, copying documents, and mailing.  This is just good research etiquette. Sometimes all that is asked is a donation to an organization in whatever amount you wish to pay.  And sometimes fees are waived altogether, particularly if  there is a potential for a scholarly publication or presentation that will bring positive publicity to the research provider.

I became acquainted with Tina Frantz in 2002 when I first ventured to Columbiana County, Ohio.  She was recommended to me by the owners of the B&B where my husband and I stayed just outside of Lisbon.  On our first trip, Tina referred me by phone to local historical societies and libraries where I might find records I was seeking.  In 2004, when we returned to Lisbon, Tina spent three days with us in her SUV negotiating flood-ravaged roads to take us to cemeteries, old houses, open land, and archives pertinent to the lives of the people named on Philena's quilt.

Lynda and Tina Frantz "showing" Philena's quilt to past members of the Dutton
family, including Philena's sister-in-law Rachel Hambleton Dutton.  Dutton Family
Cemetery, McCann Road, Hanover Township, Columbiana County, Ohio, 2004.
Photograph by Theodore H. Chenoweth.
 
Tina Frantz and Theodore H. Chenoweth using chalk to highlight the names on a
tombstone where the children of William and Hannah King Ward are buried.
King Family Cemetery, McCann Road, Butler Township, Columbiana County, Ohio, 2004.
Photograph by Lynda Salter Chenoweth.
 
Tina Frantz and Lynda examining the names on tombstones rolled by vandals down
the hill from the Sandy Spring Meeting cemetery outside of Hanoverton, Ohio, 2004.
Photograph by Theodore H. Chenoweth.
 
Tina not only knows the "ground" of Columbiana County but has long worked with the Ohio Genealogical Society, local historical societies, and county offices to develop historical information about the early residents of this part of Ohio.  Through her "day job" working with the county court in Lisbon, she has access to 19th century legal records.  These include wills, land purchases and transfers, cases heard before the Court of Common Pleas, probate records, suits, and other legal transactions that she has graciously searched for me outside of work hours.  Of particular interest to me have been the 19th century probate records related to the settlement of estates.  These provide an inventory of every item owned by the deceased and, when sold at the traditional "crying sale", an account of who bought each item and how much was paid for it.  I have urged Tina to co-author an article on probate records with me - titled something like "Probate Records are a Gas!!" - because these records give such insight into the personal lives of people and also show, through recorded purchases, relationships with neighbors and family members who bought items from the estate.  One day we just may do it.  [Although this has not happened as of 2017.]
 
I found Pat Rowell by chance one day while trying to follow up on some vague information about where most of the Hambletons were buried.  Pat volunteers at the Poweshiek County Historical and Genealogical Society in Montezuma, Iowa, performing research for members of the public seeking information about their families or just interested in the history of the area.  Pat volunteered to visit local Quaker cemeteries for me to see if she could find the graves of Philena, her husband Osborn, and other immediate members of the Hambleton family. Find them she did at the Friends Cemetery just outside of Lynnville, Iowa, in Jasper County!
 
Pat Rowell standing next to one of several Hambleton tombstones located in
the Friends Cemetery, Lynnville, Jasper County, Iowa.  Photograph courtesy of
Pat Rowell.
 
Poweshiek County Historical and Genealogical Society in Montezuma, Iowa.
Photography by Lynda Salter Chenoweth.
 
Pat them volunteered to comb through the files of the Poweshiek County Historical and Genealogical Society looking for items related to the Hambletons and their in-laws, the Cravers.  She found Osborn Hambleton;s probate records, several articles in various publication about Hambleton family members as Iowa pioneers, old land maps with properties identified by owner names, obituaries about Hambleton family members, an article about the anti-slavery society founded by Osborn and Philena at Forest Home, and a wealth of other information.  We were able to find the house that Philena and Osborn built in 1855 using the maps, and all of these sources helped to bring the Hambletons' lives in Iowa into biographical focus.  My greatest regret is that I was unable to meet Pat in-person when we traveled to Iowa after visiting Ohio in 2004.
 
Lynda in front of the stone marking the graves of Osborn, Philena, and Lorilla Hambleton.
Friends Cemetery, Lynnville, Jasper County, Iowa, 2004.  Photograph by 
Theodore H. Chenoweth.
 
So, how do you find wonderful people like Tina and Pat to help you with your research?  The easiest way is to contact historical societies in the cities, towns, or counties where you know quilt inscribers lived.  This can be done by searching the Internet for historical societies in a particular area (i.e., Ithaca Historical Society, Columbiana County Historical Society, Chester County Historical Society).  You usually don't have to know the society's exact name to find them.  If a relevant society does not have its own web site or email address, you will usually find at least a street address and telephone number that you can use to contact it.  Then call or write asking if they have any volunteers who are available to assist you find local records or visit local cemeteries.  You will be surprised at how willing volunteers are to help you, especially those associated with small, rural societies and libraries."
 
Lynda Salter Chenoweth
 
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Meantime, two "new" old Quaker quilts have come into our lives in the past couple of months.  Lynda is feverishly researching one from Chester County, Pennsylvania, that accompanied a newly married woman to Ohio, and is about to see and photograph another whose maker originated in Virginia and ultimately moved to Ohio. You will be seeing and hearing about these in the months to come.  Both are historically interesting and significant.
 
We wish you all a Happy New Year.
 
 

 
 

 
 


December 15, 2016

Quakers, Quilts, and Domestic Cookery

Historically, Friends did not mark holidays such as Christmas as big events since all days were regarded as equally holy.  However, opportunities to gather for Meetings or social occasions were often cause for special, caring preparation.

Visiting Friends stayed in homes (and still do) when gathering for the Quarterly and Yearly meetings which lasted for days.  One member of Hopewell Monthly Meeting in Frederick County, Virginia, charmingly described her childhood impressions of Quarterly Meetings that occurred circa 1900.

"There was a cyclone of house cleaning, silver polishing and arraying the best china.  Beds were made up.  The children often were banished to the attic or slept on pallets on the floor. Cakes were baked, cookies, doughnuts and choice Virginia hams were cooked.  Kids loved it!  Mothers sank back into utter exhaustion afterward."  (Memories of Hopewell . . .)

Interior of a home inhabited by Hopewell Friends, Frederick County, Virginia,
c, 1900.  Courtesy of Ellen Berry.
 
As we know from letters and diaries, one of the most popular home cookbooks used by historical Friends was self-published in 1845 by Elizabeth Ellicott Lea (1793-1858).  She was born into a prominent Quaker Maryland family.  Interestingly, some of her recipes specify a Maryland affiliation, like her "Maryland Corn Cakes", while others, such as "Virginia Pone," and "A Virginia Hoe Cake" give a nod to a state where she had close acquaintances.  

Domestic Cookery, Useful Receipts, and Hints to Young Housekeepers eventually
went through nineteen printings in twenty-five years.  Photograph of a copy owned by
Mary Holton Robare.
 
Elizabeth Ellicott Lea.  Image scanned from the frontispiece of A Quaker Woman's Cookbook:
The Domestic Cookery of Elizabeth Ellicott Lea by William Woys Weaver.
 
There are several historical Quaker quilts associated with members of the cookbook author's family.  The Pidgeon Family Quilt (see our posts of July 14, 2012, November 11, 2012, and December 1, 2015) contains several blocks inscribed with initials that, most likely, represent Beulah Iddings Lea and her sister-in-law Deb Lea.
 
 
 
The Pidgeon Family Quilt, c. 1850, details.  Collection of the Colonial Williamsburg
Foundation.  Photographs by Mary Holton Robare.
 
"Deb Lea, 1849" is inscribed in ink on a block containing a chintz-work wreath of brown, blue, olive, and mustard-colored chintz.  On another identical wreath placed in the overall pattern of the quilt in symmetrical relation to the first are the initials "B.I.L."  Both quilt blocks contain a quilted oak leaf centered on the inscribed initials.  The quilter seemed to be emphasizing an association between the two blocks.
 
After extensive cross-referencing of census records, wedding certificates, Meeting records, and social histories a close relationship was revealed between individuals who were, most likely represented by the inscriptions.  "B.I.L.," Beulah Iddings (1824-1906) and "Deb Lea,"  Deborah Ann Pierce (1816-1894), were daughters-in-law of the cookbook author as they married her sons, Thomas and Edward Lea.  They were also contemporaries of the maker of The Pidgeon Family Quilt, Sarah Chandlee Pidgeon.
 
Another chintz-work block on The Pidgeon Family Quilt bears the embroidered initials, "R.R."  That alone would not be enough to suggest an identity, but it is not an unlikely deduction that the initials represent one of the quilt-maker's daughters.  The quilt's maker, Sarah Chandlee Pidgeon, who grew up in Lea's Maryland community, named her third daughter Rebecca Russell Pidgeon, very possibly after Lea's nurse.
 
The Pidgeon Family Quilt, c. 1850, detail.  Collection of the Colonial Williamsburg
Foundation.  Photograph by Mary Holton Robare.
 
Rebecca Russell (1786-1888) was a Quaker nurse who came from Pennsylvania to care for Elizabeth Ellicott Lea's ill husband.  When he died shortly thereafter, she stayed on with the family -- for another fifty-nine years!  It is known from William Woys Weaver's revised edition of Domestic Cookery that Lea tested and developed her recipes with the help of her husband's former nurse.  Presumably, the recipes passed all taste trials for safety since Russell lived to over the age of one hundred years.
 
As William Woys Weaver explained in the "Introduction" of his Revised Edition of Lea's book, ". . . the bedridden authoress was obliged to shout down recipes and corrections to Rebecca Russell or the family cook, whose duty it was to execute them properly."
 
Weaver discovered that before being self-published in 1845, Domestic Cookery was originally produced as just two manuscripts: one for the author, and one for her daughter, Mary Lea Stabler whose initials, we believe, were also embroidered on a block of The Pidgeon Family Quilt.
 
The Pidgeon Family Quilt, c. 1850, detail.  Collection of the Colonial Williamsburg
Foundation.  Photograph by Mary Holton Robare.
 
Yet another quilt (among others) is connected to Elizabeth Ellicott Lea, attributed to her sister.  The "Martha Ellicott Crazy Quilt," dated 1838, is considered the earliest form of a crazy quilt known to exist.  It is in the collection of the Maryland Historical Society and you can see it on their web site at http://www.mdhs.org/digitalimage/martha-ellicott-crazy-quilt.
 
We could share one of Elizabeth Ellicott Lea's recipes for this holiday season, such as her "White Cake."  It begins with instructions to: "Beat the whites of twenty eggs, wash the salt out of a pound of butter," and ends with "prepare an icing , flavored with rose water, put it on the top and sides."  Instead, consider ordering a copy of Weaver's Revised Edition of Lea's cookbook to enjoy learning much more.
 
 
We wish you all health, happiness, peace, and prosperity
through the holidays and in the coming year.
 
Notes and Sources:
 
Although difficult to read, the name of "Deb Lea" decipherable when compared to her signature on the Wedding Certificate of Sarah Chandlee to Samuel Pidgeon.  Copy held by Mary Holton Robare.
 
Davis, Nancy.  "The Kaleidoscope Quilt".  In Eyewinkers, Tumbleturds and Candlebugs: The Art of Elizabeth Talford Scott.  Maryland Institute, College of Art, January 1998.
 
Friends General Conference at http://www.fgcquaker.org/explore/faqs-about-quakers.  Accessed 12/13/2016.
 
Lea, Elizabeth Ellicott.  Domestic Cookery, 1845.
 
Memories of Hopewell, Published in Celebration of the 250th Anniversary of Hopewell Friends Meeting 1734-1984.  Frederick County, Virginia.  Hopewell Monthly Meeting, 1984, no. 6.  Copy held at the Handley Library Archives, Winchester, Virginia.
 
 
Robare, Mary Holton.  "Quaker Networks Revealed in Quilts."  In Proceedings of the Textile History Forum.  Cherry Valley, NY: Textile History Forum, 2007.
 
Weaver, William Woys.  A Quaker Woman's Cookbook: The Domestic Cookery  of Elizabeth Ellicott Lea.  Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 2004. 
 
(c) Lynda Salter Chenoweth and Mary Holton Robare
 


 
 
 

 

 

 

December 1, 2016

"I bequeath my gold watch to my niece Tacie Cleaver, also one blanket and a feather bed."

This bequest was one of many made by Tacy J. Kenderdine in her will signed on 2nd day July 1896.  Two years later, on Wednesday March 16, 1898, Tacy passed away and was buried at the Horsham Friends Cemetery in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania.

On March 24, 1898 the following appeared in the Ambler Gazette.  "Tacy Kenderdine, eldest daughter of the late Chalkley Kenderdine, died very suddenly on Wednesday of last week at the home of her brother-in-law Thomas Stackhouse, Horshamville.  Mrs. Kenderdine had been enjoying unusually good health all winter.  On Monday of last week she attended the funeral of Martha Morgan at Quakertown, Bucks County, and on the previous Monday was at the funeral of Esther Saw, at Friends meeting house, Upper Dublin.  After returning home from Quakertown she remarked to her sister, Mrs. Stackhouse, that she had been at funerals for two Mondays in succession and wondered whose funeral would be on Next Monday, facetiously adding that probably it would be her own.  No one of the family thought seriously of the remark.  On Wednesday evening, shortly after retiring for the night, with but 15 minutes warning, the summons came.  Mrs. Kenderdine was in her 70th year.  Interment was made in Horsham meeting grounds on Monday the 21st inst."

Horsham Friends Cemetery.  Photograph posted on Find A Grave web site by Shriver.
 
The niece to whom Tacy willed her gold watch, a blanket, and a feather bed was the daughter of Tacy's sister Sarah Jane Kenderdine Cleaver.  The names of both Tacy and Sarah Jane appear on the red and white "circle quilt" belonging to Joy Swartz.
 
Block displaying the name of Tacy Kenderdine.  Photograph by Lynda Salter Chenoweth.
 
The Kenderdine family immigrated to the New World from England during the 17th century, settling in what became Horsham Township in Montgomery County near Philadelphia.  Richard Kenderdine, one of Tacy's and Sarah Jane's early colonial ancestors, obtained 250 acres in 1713 from Samuel Carpenter who had bought the land directly from William Penn.  Richard's son Joseph, a millwright, inherited this property after his father's death in 1733 and is assumed to be the builder of a mill on the property.  This mill, which exists today as the Kenderdine Mill Complex, was erected during 1733 and 1734.
 
Kenderdine Mill with its third floor added in the 19th century.  Source of photograph:
Wikimedia Commons.  Author: Carla Loughlin.  The mill remained operational using
its original water power into the 20th century.
 
A residence belonging to Richard and then to Joseph Kenderdine was constructed on the property prior to the building of the mill.  Unfortunately, this building was demolished in 2012 and no longer exists.
 
 
The Joseph Kenderdine house, demolished in 2012.  Source of photograph:
Wikimedia Commons.  Author: Carla Loughlin.
 
The Kenderdine family played a major role in the development of Horsham Township and the small town of Horsham (previously known as Babylon and then Horsham Meeting).  According to a history of Horsham, the town was located in the center of Horsham Township and originally consisted of "three log cabins, a school, a store, wheelwright shop, blacksmith shop, and a stone farmhouse.  Members of the Kenderdine family made up the largest part of the population."
 
In 1719, fifty acres of land were conveyed to John Cadwallader, Thomas Iredell, Evan Lloyd, and Richard Kenderdine by Hanna Carpenter, the widow of Samuel Carpenter.  The purpose of the conveyance was to build a Quaker meeting house, a school, and a burying ground on the property.  Construction of the meeting house began in 1720 and was completed in 1724.  By 1803, membership in the Friends Meeting at Horsham had grown so much that this original meeting house was torn down and another, larger one was constructed.
 
 
Horsham Friends Meeting House.  Source of photograph:  Wikimedia Commons.
 
Horsham Friends Meeting House carriage barn.  Source of photograph:
Wikimedia Commons.
 
The Kenderdines of Horsham, like many other Quakers in the 18th and 19th centuries, abhorred slavery and supported the abolitionist cause.  An obituary for Joseph R. Kenderdine  that appeared in the Ambler Gazette on December 24, 1903, described an incident that involved the father of the deceased, also a Joseph, in 1822.  "It was from home, near what is now known as Horsham Square, then Babylon, that a kidnapping affair occurred in 1822, where a New Jersey slave was a central figure, involving a rescue by the neighbors, among whom were several of the Kenderdine family, who were afterwards brought up before the United States courts and heavily fined."
 
Tacy and Sarah Jane Kenderdine were from a large and noteworthy family but, unfortunately, the details of their lives are difficult to find.  They were the daughters of Chalkley and Ann Jarrett Kenderdine, the children of whom included Tacy (1829-1898), Sarah Jane ((1832-1912), Letitia (born 1838), Elizabeth J. (1840-1904), and John J. who died in infancy.  Sarah Jane went on to marry John Cleaver, Letitia married Edward Ambler, and Elizabeth J. married Thomas Stackhouse.  There is no evidence that Tacy ever married.
 
 We are still trying to figure out for whom Joy's quilt was made and to understand the relationships of those named on it.  Most of the people so far identified were German Baptists (Church of the Brethren) and not members of the Religious Society of Friends.  Whatever their relationships one to another, their connections seem to extend beyond religious and even familial ties.  Interestingly, the identities of those whose names are inscribed on the quilt seem to span a few generations.  One possible explanation is that Joy's quilt is a multi-generational quilt.  Still working on this.  Thanks, Joy, for the challenge!
 
Sources:
 
Ancestry. com Quaker meeting records, census data, and Public Member Trees.
 
"History of Horsham Monthly Meeting" at http://horshammeeting.org/history.html.  Accessed 10/15/2016.
 
Kenderdine_Mill_Complex.html.  (Link is too long to fit on one line.)  Accessed 10/15/2016.
 
Montgomery County Pennsylvania Genealogy.  Obituaries, Death Notices, and Funeral Notices at http://www.montgomery.pa-roots.com/Obituaries/ObitsKa-Ke.html.  Accessed 11/27/2016.
 
Pennsylvania Wills and Probate Records, 1683-1993, Montgomery Wills, Vol. 25-26,  1897-1900.
 
(c) Lynda Salter Chenoweth and Mary Holton Robare, 2016.