To our readers: We will be taking a two month break to research Quaker quilts that we will share with you in Fall. Thank you for "sticking with us" during this research break! We'll be back October 1st. Have a lovely rest-of-the-summer.
Lynda & Mary
Detail of chintz in friendship quilt from upstate New York. Collection of Lynda Salter Chenoweth.
While the focus of this blog is Quaker quilts and history, from time to time we like to share other quilt-related experiences. Mary had the opportunity to visit the Metropolitan Museum of Art in early July and to see their current exhibit of quilts. The quilts on display are actually the second rotation of an exhibit that was on display through January 8th, 2016. The current quilts will be displayed in Gallery 751 just through August 7th, 2016.
According to the Museum's website, "This exhibition features eight quilts - all recent additions to the Museum's outstanding quilt collection, only one of which has been shown at the Museum before. The display also includes a selection of folk painting and furniture from The American Wing's collection, as well as two important paintings by [the Quaker painter] Edward Hicks (American, 1780-1840), on loan from the Peter J. Solomon Family Collection."
The quilts in this second rotation are all mid-nineteenth-century, graphically stunning, and superbly crafted. The Museum grants permission to take non-flash photographs.
The maker of this "Star of Bethlehem Quilt" is unknown, but its label describes
it as , "Probably New Jersey, ca. 1845," acc. # 1998.87.1 Measuring 104 X 103 inches,
it was a gift of Robert E. Cole, in memory of Helen R. Cole.
As is most typical of the Star of Bethlehem pattern, this quilt has a large central star whose rays extend to the quilt's edges. Four small complete stars serve as the corner blocks, and four half stars fill the spaces on the sides. Although made in the nineteenth century, all of the fabrics remain fresh and vibrant. The dark blue ground fabric is particularly effective - evoking the night sky and setting off the brilliant multicolored stars.
This quilt is described in its label as, "Mariner's Compass Quilt," Pennsylvania, 1847,
acc. # 2011.374. It has an inscription in its center block in ink" "Barbara Ann Miller/her quilt/
1847." Measuring 108 X 107 inches, the quilt was a gift of the Hascoe Foundation in 2011.
"Star of Bethlehem Quilt, Perth Amboy, New Jersey, ca. 1845-1848," acc. # 46.152.2.
Made by members of the Congregation of the First Baptist Church, Middlesex County,
Perth Amboy, New Jersey, it measures 76 1/4 X 75 7/8 inches and was a gift of
Mrs. George Sands Bryan, in memory of her husband, George Sands Bryan, 1946.
From the Museum's website, "According to his granddaughter-in-law, Reverend George Faitute Hendricksen (1817-1894) received this quilt as a gift from his congregation during a church Harvest Festival. A minister for over fifty years, Hendricksen served as pastor of the First Baptist Church of Perth Amboy from 1845 to 1848."
"Star of Bethlehem Quilt, maker unknown, possibly New York ca. 1845." Measuring
90 X 89 1/4 inches, the quilt was a gift of Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Schwartz, acc. # 1973.64.
"Star of Bethlehem Quilt," made by Rebecca Davis ca. 1846. Measuring
80 X 94 inches, it was a gift of Mrs. Andrew Galbraith Carey, acc. # 1980.498.3.
According to the Museum's website, "In the pieced blocks, the quilting stitches follow the star shapes with parallel lines. In the plain white blocks, the quilting pattern alternates between four tulips and four leaves. The quilt has a cotton-batting filling, and the back is of plain white woven cotton. There are partial English design registration marks on some of pieces of fabric."
"Star of Bethlehem Quilt" ca. 1835. It measures 122 X 122 inches. Purchase, Sandbury-Mills
Fund., acc. # 1973.204.
"The presence of paired Baltimore orioles printed on the English chintz in the four corner blocks makes Maryland a likely candidate for the place of origin."
"Quilt, Star of Bethlehem pattern variation" ca. 1840-50. Measuring 112 1/2 X 107
inches, this quilt was a gift of Mr. and Mrs. Sidney Hosmer, 1948, acc. # 48.134.1.
"Unfortunately, little is known about the provenance of this quilt; however, it can be dated to the mid-nineteenth century by the type and palette of the brightly colored calicos. The clear hues of the reds and yellows are especially notable. This cheerful palette is shared by other quilts in the American Wing's collection, such as 46.152.2, 1980.498.3, and 2011.374, all of which can be accurately dated to the second half of the 1840s."
Mary wishes she had easy access to these quilts and the time to conduct an in-depth study of some of them - study that might reveal a Quaker connection here and there! But, for now, we decided to just share these stunning quilts with all of you.
You can find out more information, and see additional, high-quality photographs of the quilts (including a few detail shots) by visiting the Museum's website.
All information herein came directly from the exhibit labels or the website of the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
July 4th is the day set aside each year to celebrate American independence. With the date fast approaching, Lynda noted that the main fabric in a reproduction quilt she is making celebrates, not only independence, but also the "illustrious sons" of this country's liberty. The quilt she is reproducing is not a Quaker quilt, but rather an Ohio Star quilt made in the 1840s that is part of a private collection. Given the coming holiday, however, she thought it appropriate to acknowledge the commemoration of American independence by writing about the reproduction fabric she is using in her quilt.
The original quilt has Ohio Star blocks separated by blocks of a light-red pillar print. The border of the original quilt is a blue pillar print. Lynda was unable to find appropriately-colored reproduction pillar print fabrics but remembered that she had a piece of fabric in her stash that might well do to separate the blocks of Ohio Stars. This fabric was produced by Windham Fabrics as part of its Williamsburg line and is titled "America Presenting at the Altar of Liberty Medallions of Her Illustrious Sons." It is a reproduction of an English furnishing fabric printed about 1785 for the American market.
Partial panel from the Windham reproduction fabric "America Presenting at the
Altar of Liberty Medallions of Her Illustrious Sons," Windham pattern No. 30747.
All photographs by Lynda Salter Chenoweth.
The commemorative fabrics produced in England for American consumption so soon after American independence indicate the value seen by the British in exploiting the new American market, regardless of the British defeat that produced it. These fabrics were copper-plate printed on cotton or linen, using single colors of red, blue, purple, or brown, and depicting allegorical, mythological, and historic figures copied from existing paintings and prints of the time.
The fabric Lynda is using depicts George Washington being crowned with a wreath by a figure of Fame. The personification of Liberty attends an altar to the right assisted by Minerva, Commerce, and another symbolic figure. (These are located to the right of the altar and are shown in the photograph below.) Washington is accompanied by America, designated by her feather headdress, holding a medallion featuring the portraits of two men. According to Florence Montgomery: "The artist of this grandiose allegorical scene relied on the engraving by Valentine Green, after John Trumbull's painting of the youthful George Washington, and on portrait engravings of famous Americans by Pierre Eugene du Simitiere, published in both French and English editions." (Montgomery, 279,)
Minerva, Commerce and another figure to the right of the Altar of Liberty. Detail of the
Windham Fabrics reproduction fabric titled "America Presenting at the Altar of Liberty
Medallions of Her Illustrious Sons."
The portraits portrayed on the fabric's medallions include those of Benedict Arnold, Silas Deane, John Dickinson (a Quaker), William Henry Drayton, Benjamin Franklin, Horatio Gates, John Jay, John Laurens, Joseph Reed, William Thompson, and Fredrich Wilhelm Von Steuben.
" Benedict Arnold?," one might ask! Prior to his defection to the British in 1780, Arnold was considered a hero of the Revolutionary War. Two years after his defection, the war ended with the Battle of Yorktown and the American defeat of the British. The fabric depicting Benedict Arnold on one of the medallions was printed about 1785 but probably was designed earlier. Perhaps word of Arnold's treacherous actions had not reached England before the fabric plates were engraved.
Benedict Arnold. Source of image: Wikimedia Commons.
Evidence of the use of figures on textiles that were copied from other media is provided by the figure of George Washington on a similar fabric of the same period titled "The Apotheosis of Washington and Franklin." The standing figure of Washington on both fabrics is identical with the exception that his head is bare on the fabric shown above but bears a hat on the Apotheosis fabric. This fabric shows him standing, reins in hand, in a chariot drawn by leopards and accompanied by a figure of America holding a plaque that reads: "American Independence, 1776." Above them, Benjamin Franklin and Athena are portrayed being led by Liberty toward the Temple of Fame carrying a banner that reads: "Where Liberty Dwells There Is My Country."
Lynda's reproduction quilt top (soon to be quilt) contains other elements reminiscent of American independence. These are the stars that separate blocks of the commemorative fabric.
Portion of Lynda's reproduction quilt top showing the use of Ohio Star blocks
to separate the blocks of commemorative fabric.
The fabrics used for the Ohio Stars are reproduction fabrics from Lynda's stash, some of them from the American Quilt Study Group (AQSG) fabric line titled "Circa 1825" by Sharon Yenter & Jason Yenter for In The Beginning Fabrics (2014). The following photographs show fabrics from this line.
Lynda had been wondering what to call this quilt, once it is finished. Since it inspired this post, she has decided to call it Independence Day.
Happy 4th of July to all of our American readers! And, have a lovely summer to our other readers throughout the world. We thank you all for visiting our blog.
Affleck, Diane L. Fagan and Paul Hudson. Celebration and Remembrance, Commemorative Textiles in America, 1790-1990. Lowell, MA: Museum of American Textile History, 1990.